##### As Taught in:

2018/2019

##### Level:

Undergraduate

##### Learning Resource Types:

=> Problem Sets

=> Notes

=> Reading Resources

**Course Overview**:

Physics 101 Classical Mechanics is the first course in the physics curriculum introduces classical mechanics. This course has a hands-on focus and approaches mechanics through take-home experiments. Topics include kinematics, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Universal Gravitation, Statics, Conservation Laws, Energy, Work, Momentum, and Special Relativity.

Historically, a set of core concepts from space, time, mass, force, momentum, torque, and angular momentum. They were introduced in classical mechanics in order to solve the most famous physics problem, the motion of the planets.

The principles of mechanics successfully described many other phenomena encountered in the world. Conservation laws involving energy, momentum, and angular momentum provided a second parallel approach to solving many of the same problems. In this course, we will investigate both approaches.

Our goal is to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts, especially for learners who are comfortable with calculus, and a familiarity with the experimental verification of our theoretical laws, and an ability to apply the theoretical framework to describe and predict the motions of bodies.

**Prerequisites**:

Mathematics – Calculus

**Textbook**:

Kleppner, Daniel, and Robjert J. Kolenkow. An Introduction to Mechanics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1973. ISBN: 9780070350489.

Young, H. D., and R.A. Freedman. University Physics. 11th Ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2004. ISBN: 9780805391800.

Specific readings for each assignment are provided in the Readings section.

**Problem Sets:**

Almost every end of chapter a problem set will be deliver. This work will typically consist of five or six problems. To receive full credit for the written component of learner works, learner must prepare and submit lucid and clearly reasoned written solutions. A selection of these problems will be graded and returned.

Learners are encouraged to freely discuss work problems with other learners. However, learner must write up your own solutions completely . Do not copy solutions from other learners. Do not consult solutions form previous years or from the Web.

Problem sets will be graded on explanation, with all work must be shown. Problems answered with only the correct answer and no work will receive no credit. Partial credit for showing work with correct answer but without explanation will be given at the discretion of the grader.

**Evidence of Understanding:**

Papers and presentations. There will be a final in the course. The final will be a written paper and will cover all of the subject topics that being discussed during the course.

If paper and presentations does well, then learner can get a chance to have an “A” or “AA”. Once the final course grade has been computed at the end of the term, grades will be assigned as explained in the beginning of “COURSE“

List of the topics that will be covered are:

- Kinematics
- Newton’s Laws Circular Motion
- Circular Motion Momentum and Impulse
- Drag Forces, Constraints and Continuous Systems Work and Mechanical Energy
- Momentum and Impulse Collision Theory
- Continuous Mass Transfer Torque
- Kinetic Energy and Work
- Potential Energy and Energy Conservation
- Collision Theory
- Rotational Motion
- Angular Momentum
- Rotations

Readings listed in this section are for your references before the class from the suggested textbook in Syllabus:

Chapter 1: Intro and Vector Definitions, Motion in Cartesian and Polar Coordinates, Newton’s Laws and Forces

Chapter 2: Application of Newton’s Laws

Chapter 3: Momentum, Collisions I, and Rocket Motion

Chapter 4: Energy, Potential Energy, Energy Conservation, Collisions II

Chapter 6: Fixed Axis Rotation, Moment of Inertia, Rotational and Translational Motion.

Chapter 7: Rigid Body Motion, Gyroscopic Motion, Cavendish Experiment, Moment of Inertia Tensor

Chapter 7 & 8: Euler’s Equations / Accelerated Reference Frames

Chapter 8: Accelerated and Rotating Reference Frames

Chapter 9: Central Force Motion and Kepler’s Laws

Chapter 11: Foundations of Relativity

From Young and Freedman:

Force as a Vector, Vector Manipulations >> Sections 1.1-1.9, 4.1-4.2, 5.1

Vectors, Free-body Diagrams, Equilibrium >> Sections 2.1-2.5, 4.5-4.6, & 5.1

Relative Motion, 1-D and 2-D Kinematics, Gravity near the Earth >> Sections 2.1-2.5, 3.1-3.3, 4.5-4.6, & 5.1

Non-constant Acceleration, Circular Motion, F=ma >> Sections 3.4-3.5, Chapter 4, and Chapter 5

Free-body Diagrams with Acceleration, Friction, and Springs >> Chapter 5, especially section 5.3-5.4

F=ma for Circular Motion with Gravity, Pendulums >> Sections 6.1-6.3 & 7.1

Work, Kinetic and Potential Energy >> Sections 7.2-7.5

Work and Energy, Energy Diagrams >> Sections 6.4, 8.1-8.5

Momentum, Elastic/Inelastic Collisions, Center of Mass, Simple Harmonic Motion >> Sections 8.1-8.5 & 13.1-13.4

Gravity far from the Surface of the Earth >> Sections 12.1-12.3

Orbits >> Section 12.4

Fluid Properties, Kinetic Theory of Gasses >> Section 14.1-14.5, 18.1, & 18.3

Kinematics, Statics, Dynamics of Angular Motion >> Sections 9.1-9.3, 10.1-10.3, & 11.1-11.3

Energy and Momentum of Angular Motion, Angular Momentum Applied to Orbits and Gyroscopes >> Sections 9.4-9.6, 10.4-10.6, & 13.4-13.6

Each groups of three learners will carry out 3 experiments. Complete instructions for building and testing all of the experiments can be found in the experiment manual, except the last experiments. All necessary materials can be acquired during the course and surround us.

About the Experiments:

- Estimating a Second
- Making Clip Leads CLK
- About the Multimeter
- Building Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS)
- Falling Object
- Force Between Magnets
- Energy Transformations
- Angular Momentum
- Flow

Sir Isaac Newton developed classical mechanics in the 17th century not just as a mathematical approach to understanding the motions of objects, but also as an experimental science. His book Principia details many experiments used to test the equations he derived from various force laws.

In this experiments lab, we have designed an assignment which allows learner to decide what kind of experiment or investigation in classical mechanics learner want to pursue. This project is open-ended; learner decide what project learner want to do — measure a physical constant, reproduce one of the homework problems, do a numerical simulation of a complex physical problem — and propose your project to the instructors.

Here are the rules:

- The project must an experiment based on principles we have learned in Physics 101 – Classical Mechanics
- The project should test an idea (such as the conservation of momentum), verify a result from the psets (such as confirming the properties of the capstan), recreate a classical experiment (such as those conducted by Newton or Galileo); demonstrate a physical concept (similar to the classroom demos) or examine a unique mechanical situation (such as examining the motion of coupled-pendulum system).
- The project can be mechanical (i.e., building something), purely experimental (i.e., measuring the motion of a simple system) or numerical (i.e., simulating a physical problem on computer).
- You may work in groups of up to 3 peoples.
- Each project will be graded according to its description of the physics underlying the experiment, design and execution of the experiment and analysis/description of the results. Creativity will be rewarded!

The first step is to submit a project proposal, a one (1) page description of your proposed project which is due in Lecture #14. That proposal should include:

- A title and name(s) of those working on the project;
- A brief description of the project itself (general idea, design, goals);
- A description of how the project is specifically related to the physical principles discussed in Physics 101; and
- A description of the resources you may need to complete the project and how you aim to obtain those resources.

The instructors will assess your project idea and either give you/your group the go-ahead or suggest a revised project plan. No Physics 101 project can be done without an accepted proposal, and no late proposals will be accepted, so be sure to get your proposals in Lec #14. Only one proposal per group needs to be turned in; if your group spans multiple recitations, please designate one (responsible!) member of your group to hand in the proposal.

Once your proposal is accepted, go for it! Completed projects, consisting of a 3-5 page report and any accompanying media (e.g., pictures, video, computer simulation) will be due by the end of Lec #21. The best projects will be highlighted on the last day of lecture.

Not sure what to do? Here are some examples of previous projects:

- A simulation of the orbit of a sun, planet and moon
- A simulation of an object bound by two springs
- A machine that measures friction
- A multi-stage pendulum bar